The AP09258412 project "Development of a microbiological method for the complex utilization of cellulose-containing crop waste" is carried out under the agreement for the implementation of scientific, scientific and technical projects for grant financing dated 07.04.2021 No.148/36-21-23 concluded between LLP "NPC of Microbiology and Virology" and the State Institution "Committee of Science of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan".
Cellulose-containing raw materials, including waste from agricultural processing of plant biomass, are the most common renewable raw materials on the planet with an annual global production of about 200 billion tons. However, it mostly remains unclaimed. Only in the North Kazakhstan region, after harvesting grain crops, there are more than 4 million tons of straw per year, some of which goes to fertilizers, some is used in animal husbandry, but 40% of which remains useless and is burned. When burning stubble, microflora dies and soil fertility decreases.
One of the ways to dispose of cellulose-containing waste is the production of higher cellulose-decomposing fungi, characterized by independence from climatic conditions, rapid yield rates and great popularity of products. It is assumed that by 2050, a third of the proteins consumed by humans will come from proteins of fungal origin. Higher mushrooms are not only a highly nutritious and delicious food, but also serve as a source of biologically active substances used in medicine to treat a number of diseases. The spent substrate, which is a biomass enriched with proteins, vitamins, hydrolytic enzymes and other biologically active substances, can be used as feed additives.
However, mushroom production does not receive mass development due to the energy intensity and complexity of preparing the substrate for their cultivation. Raw materials, even of the best quality, contain a lot of dormant forms of mold fungi that become active when moistened and compete with the higher fungus for food sources, suppressing its development and accumulating mycotoxins.
The correct selection of microorganisms for substrate conversion, suppression of competitive microflora and stimulation of mushroom growth allows reducing the cost of substrate pretreatment, increasing the productivity of higher cellulose-destroying fungi for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries and obtaining a functional proteinized probiotic feed additive for farm animals and poultry.
The aim of the project is to develop a microbiological method for the complex utilization of cellulose-containing crop waste for the food, feed and pharmaceutical industries using higher fungi.
- for 2021: micromycetes of weeds of the process of growing higher fungi will be isolated; cellulolytic bacteria and antagonists of micromycetes of weeds will be isolated and selected;
- for 2022: heterofermentative lactic acid and propionic acid bacteria and microorganisms that stimulate the growth of higher fungi will be isolated; the composition of the substrate and microorganisms will be selected and optimized to increase the growth rate, the activity of biomass accumulation of fruit bodies of higher fungi.
- for 2023: Selection and optimization of the composition of the substrate and microorganisms will be carried out to increase the growth rate, the activity of biomass accumulation of fruit bodies of higher fungi. The technology of increasing the nutritional value and biological value of the spent substrate will be worked out. A microbiological method of complex utilization of cellulose-containing substrates will be developed.
The results of the research will be published:
- at least 2 (two) articles and (or) reviews in peer-reviewed scientific publications indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science database and (or) having a CiteScore percentile in the Scopus database of at least 35 (thirty-five);
- or at least 1 (one) article or review in a peer-reviewed scientific publication indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science database and (or) having a CiteScore percentile in the Scopus database of at least 35 (thirty-five), and 1 (one) patent included in the Derwent Innovations Index database (Web of Science, Clarivate Analytics);
- as well as at least 1 (one) article or review in a peer-reviewed foreign or domestic publication recommended by COXON;
- or at least 1 (one) article or review in a peer-reviewed scientific publication, included in the 1st (first) or 2nd (second) quartile in the Web of Science database and (or) having a CiteScore percentile in the Scopus database of at least 65 (sixty-five).
The results of the project will presumably be published in journals of any of the following branches of knowledge: Agricultural and Biological Sciences (Agricultural and Biological Sciences), environmental Science (Environmental Science), Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) or multidisciplinary (Multidisciplinary) or others suitable for the research topic. The most suitable publications will be selected according to the citation indices.
2 applications for an invention will be submitted to the Kazakhstan Patent Office for a consortium of microorganisms and a method for processing cellulose-containing waste to produce fruit bodies of higher fungi and a proteinized feed additive.
Will take part in a scientific conference.
Achieved results (for the first half of 2021):
Fungal microorganisms were isolated from samples of wheat, barley and oat straw, destroyed wood with mycelium of cellulose-destroying fungi and fruit bodies of oyster mushrooms.
Isolates of mycelial fungi of green color (Trichiderma, Penicillium) were isolated from the destroyed wood and from the fruit bodies of the fungus Pleurotus.
Fungi belonging mainly to the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, etc. were isolated from samples of various straw. with white, beige-gray, brown, swamp-green and black color of mycelium or spores.
In total, 28 isolates of mycelial fungi were isolated: 14 isolates of fungi from wheat straw, 5 from barley straw, 4 from oat straw, 5 isolates from destroyed wood and from the surface of the fruit bodies of the oyster mushroom.
The selected mushrooms will be used to isolate antagonist bacteria.
1. Saubenova M.G., Oleinikova E.A., Suleimenova Zh.B., Aitzhanova A.A. The use of microorganisms to increase the selectivity of substrates for cultivation of higher fungi // Materials of the international scientific and practical online conference "Modern problems of natural sciences and interdisciplinary research". – Atyrau: H. Dosmukhamedov atyndagi Atyrau University, 2021. – Vol.1. - pp. 236-239.
The results of the analysis of literature data on the importance of higher fungi in the food and pharmaceutical industry, as well as on the role and importance of microorganisms in their cultivation are presented.
2. Saubenova M.G., Suleimenova Zh.B., Mustafin K.G., Aitzhanova A.A. Nutritional and medicinal value of fungi of the genus Pleurotus // Materials of the international scientific and practical online conference "Modern problems of natural sciences and interdisciplinary research". – Atyrau: H. Dosmukhamedov atyndagi Atyrau University, 2021. – Vol.2. - pp. 222-226.
The data on the nutritional and medicinal value of fungi of the genus Pleurotus are summarized. Pleurotus species are commercially important fungi that are easy to grow due to their rapid growth on various agricultural substrates and 100% biological efficiency. Pleurotus mushrooms are rich in protein, dietary fiber, essential amino acids, carbohydrates, water-soluble vitamins and minerals.
M.G. Saubenova, Doctor of Biological Sciences, STS, ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8051-3775
Suleimenova Zh.B., Candidate of Biological Sciences, sns
Aitzhanova A.A. , Master's degree, Biotechnology https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2178-1021
Information for potential users:
LLP "Scientific and Production Center of Microbiology and Virology"
Republic of Kazakhstan, 050010, Almaty, Bogenbai Batyr str., 105
+7(727) 291-84-97, ext. 113.